English Usage & Grammar Notes

April 12, 2006

Verb Tenses (3)

Filed under: Uncategorized — hkeol @ 12:52 am

Perfect Forms

Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized.

Example Meaning
The researchers have traveled to many countries in order to collect more significant data. At an indefinite time
Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921. Continues in the present

Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb.

By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended.

Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb.

By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.


Use of No and Not

No

  • No answers a yes/no question.
    "No, the president wasn't surprised by the results of the election."
  • No precedes a noun that has no article.
    The company had no worthy rivals in the industry.
  • No can be used before a noun that is preceded by an adjective, as in the preceding example, but it is not used before any, much, many, or enough.
    Jim has no argument with which to continue the discussion.
    The manager had no reason to support his request for a raise.

Not

  • Not precedes a noun that has an article.
    The virus is not the source of the outbreak.
  • Not precedes any, much, many, or enough.
    Not many amateur astronomers can afford the equipment necessary to study the nova.
    There is not much budget left for another trial.
  • Not makes a verb negative.
    They do not want to proceed with the experimental study.

Note: No and not are never used in the same sentence.

HKEOL

Learning & Publication Center

Kowloon – Hong Kong

dwjo@netvigator.com

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